(This posting includes a handout which you are welcome to use with your students and a link to a video.) *
In the video, I explain how ESL teachers can best help their students deal with reduced forms of speech. Some examples of reduced forms are
• whaddya (what are you)
• gonna (going to)
• din (didn’t)
• isn (isn’t)
• cha > / t / + you) > I want you to start now.
It’s vital that we help students UNDERSTAND what OTHER PEOPLE are saying when they use these, but it’s COUNTER-PRODUCTIVE to tell students to use these when they speak.
The link to the video and two handout-activities
Here is the link to the video Teach this to students for understanding NOT for speaking
In these two links, I share exercises that you can download and use for free. Teachers have used these templates for creating their own exercises:
1) Reduced Forms is_isn’t_have_haven’t etc, A unit focusing on reduced forms of
2) Reduced Forms Units1_7 Quiz A culminating quiz combining nine reduced forms that had been studied individually.
NOTE: In the video, I refer to research that shows students who had studied reduced forms perform better on a comprehension test after listening to an academic lecture compared to those who hadn’t studied reduced forms. Here is the study: Listening performance after studying reduced forms
For more reduced form exercises, see: Teach Reduced Forms for Comprehension Not for Speaking
*About the free-download materials. During my 40 years of teaching ESL, I have had many colleagues who were very generous with their time, advice and materials. These downloads are my way of paying it forward.