(This posting includes a handout which you are welcome to use with your students.)
One of the most common grammar questions I’ve been asked by students or tutors whom I’ve trained or new teachers whom I’ve mentored concerns sentences like:
“While eating our dinner, we enjoyed the sunset.” [Subordinator (While) + Verb-ing (eating).]
Question: Grammatically speaking, what is “eating”?
It’s called a reduced form. The writer is reducing an adverb clause to a phrase.
Original sentence: While we were eating our dinner, we enjoyed the sunset.
Reduced form: While eating our dinner, we enjoyed the sunset.
We can use these with subordinators like before, after, while and since.
This phrase can come at the beginning of a sentence as in the example above and in the title of this post or in the middle of a sentence:
She bumped into a chair while she was looking at her smartphone.
She bumped into a chair while looking at her smartphone.
Two points that students need to know
(This posting includes a handout which you are welcome to use with your students. See below.)
While the students were in engaged in this activity in triads, I was standing on the perimeter. I could overhear the list that Vy read, but couldn’t think of anything special about the four names except the obvious one that Julie was the only non-Asian. A minute later, I heard the sudden explosion of laughter and talking from them. I realized that they had shared an inside joke.
The basis of this game (Odd Man Out) might sound familiar to many of you. But by exploiting it more, it turns into a great interactive activity that is not only fun but also a chance to internalize many useful expressions and produce a lot of conversation. And students are intent on listening to each other.
In its simplest format, student read a list of four words to their partners. The partners have to choose which word is strange or odd or special and explain why. For example:
cat, lion, dog, fish
Most of us would probably identify “fish” as being odd because it is the only one that lives in water. However, another choice could be “lion,” since the others are common pets.
Making this a good learning tool and customizing it
(This posting includes handouts which you are welcome to use with your students.)
See FREE Reading Units: Reading for Insights (Introduction) for an introduction to these reading units.
Article & Study Guide for The Candy Test: Controlling Impulses (and excerpts)